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ผู้เขียน หัวข้อ: GUPPY CULTURE IN ISRAEL USING CLOSED SYSTEM  (อ่าน 16546 ครั้ง)
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« เมื่อ: กรกฎาคม 15, 2007, 04:43:46 PM »

by Joseph Itzkovich

"D'GEI ISRAEL AQUARIUM LTD" - Consulting in commercial breeding of ornamental fish, in intensive closed system matching iso standard.

www.israel-aquarium.com



Guppy farm in the Arava desert- ISRAEL

INTRODUCTION

The culture of tropical aquarium fish in Israel started 8 years ago. There are about 20 tropical fish farms, most of the farms are located in "ARAVA": a desert area in the south part of ISRAEL. The main fish produced are guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and angelfish (Petrophyluum scalare), which account for more than 80% of the total production in Israel. About 700,000. guppies per month are exported from Israel, mainly to western Europe and Japan.


The common guppy varieties are king-cobra red, king-cobra green, tuxedo-red, blue-tail, and red blond. New varieties that are being developed include blue mosaic, pingu and tuxedo-yellow.

Each tropical fish farm is very small and has a total of 1,000 m2 - 3,000 m2 (0.1-0.3h). Each farm is isolated from the others, with no connection in the water system among them. Each Guppy farm produces for export 50,000-100,000 Guppies per month. In the last years the culture of guppy has faced very serious health problems, mainly in southeast Asia. The exact causes are not known, but is believed to be a viral disease or Tetrahymena infection. In order to keep the farms in Israel at a high level of sanitation, each farm is isolated from the other with no connection in the water system among them. Breeding stock were imported from private breeders in Germany and Russia and were quarantined in separate areas for at least 6 months. The progeny of this stock were used as brooders. Regular veterinary inspection is done in every farm.

to be cont.
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« ตอบ #1 เมื่อ: กรกฎาคม 16, 2007, 02:46:00 PM »

FARM CONSTRUCTION AND TANKS

The farms were built with thermoisolated fish-houses with cement floors and good drainage. No outside open ponds are used. Most of the culture tanks are made of plastic materials. Smooth plastic tanks are very easy to clean and disinfect between culture periods. Tank size and configuration, is adapted to age and size of the guppy. Generally small tanks are used for breeding stock and fry, and bigger tanks for outgrown fish.

 


Water level is important. For guppy culture it is better to have less then 100 cm. For fry 60-80 cm high is used.

Each tank is isolated from the others. Water is recirculated through a biological filter located inside each tank (10% of tank volume), with 5-10% daily new water change. Water recirculation is done by using an airlift for each filter. The biofilter medium is made of different plastic materials. The filter is cleaned periodically. In every farm there are a bank of active biological filters, these filters are used to replace filters after sterilization. Tanks are located in isolated fish-houses and are heated with heat exchangers, keeping water temperature at 24-27 C
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« ตอบ #2 เมื่อ: กรกฎาคม 17, 2007, 04:11:13 PM »

THE WATER

The water in Israel is alkaline and hard, with pH 7.5-8.5, hardness 15-30 dH, conductivity: 1,000-3,000 µS/cm. Before entering the fish tanks, water passes through active-carbon filters. Water is aerated before use to avoid gas problems (especially gas-bubble diseases). The use of special covering nets over the fish house reduces algae development. Using these methods together with a biofilter in each tank makes the culture water crystal clear. Cultivating fish in this type of water also makes them adaptable to aquarium water in the customer place. In crystal clean water the farmer can better monitor the condition of the fish.

FEEDING

Guppy are cultivated in crystal clear water. No natural food is available to the fish. Great care is given to the quality and the source of food. In order to avoid nutritional problems, fish are fed on high quality dry feed, consisting of 30-40% protein and incorporated with vitamin premix, and carotenoids.

Size of the food pellets is graded according to the fish size. Fish are fed at least two types of dry food from different sources. Breeding stock are also fed with frozen food like blood-worm and vitamins-rich meat (beef-heart). The fry are also fed with Artemia nauplii. Dry food is given at about 5% of the total biomes daily. This amount is divided to 3-5 times a day.

WATER AND SANITARY MANAGMENT

Due to water shortage and high cost of man-power, a high-density cultivation of the guppy was adapted. Normally the density is 10 times more then traditional guppy farms in south-east Asia. Fish are grown in a fully controlled environment. All parameters are checked routinely, including Amonia, Nitrite, Nitrate, Oxygen and temperature. The water is crystal clear due to a very effective biological filter that serves also as a mechanical filter. Fish samples from different tanks are examined microscopically to find any sign of problems.

Survival rate is high, and is between 70-80% from fry to marketing size. Keeping the fish in optimal conditions, during all the growing process's enable the breeder not to use medication, especially antibiotics. This is practically: "ORGANIC-FISH". In case of a problem in the importers facility, less change of resistance will occur when treating the fish with standard medications.

STOCKING DENSITY

Every empty tank is sterilized and filled with new water before stocking new fish.


At the end of every stage fish are graded with special graders to uniform size and re-stocked to new tanks in density according to their size and age. The stocking density varies with the age and size of the guppy, as shown below:

 

- Breeding stock: 250 Females + 50 Males in cage in 500 litre.
- Fry: (1 day-30 days): 2,000-4,000/500 litre.
- Fish (31-90 days): 10,000-30,000/ 20 m3
MARKETING
Guppies reach market size at 2.5-3 month age (3.5-4 cm total length) Male and female are grown together. Before marketing females are separated from males with the help of special graders for guppies. Final separation for size and quality is done manually.


Last quality control is done watching the fish in aquariums.

Generally Israeli guppies are sold in equal proportion of males to females. Guppy females are cultivated in the same culture conditions as the males, so there is no differences between the quality of the guppy female to guppy male.

Special procedures are practiced before exporting the fish, and this includes adapting the guppy to different water types according to the destination they will be shipped to.
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