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« เมื่อ: มกราคม 29, 2007, 11:23:43 AM »


In 2004-2005, prawn farmers produced 38,720 metric tons of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, called "scampi" in India, from 36,990 hectares of ponds. Average annual production was 1.05 metric tons per hectare. The state of Andhra Pradesh (east coast) accounted for about 75% of the production area and 90% of the crop, followed by West Bengal, which produced 8.2% of the crop from 2,435 hectares of ponds.

 

In 2004-2005, India exported 9,400 tons of prawns valued at $84 million, 16% lower than the all-time peak of 11,154 tons during the 2003-2004 period. Domestic markets have increased over the last three years and currently consume almost 50% of production.

 

In 2003-04, over 92% of production was exported headless, shell-on, with additional exports of block frozen and individually quick-frozen (IQF) forms. The United States, Belgium, United Kingdom, Canada, United Arab Emirates, Germany, Mauritius, Malaysia, Japan, and Indonesia are the major buyers of Indian scampi.

 

Mixed farming of males and females has given way to farming males only, with at least two cull harvests before the final harvest. Farmers stock 20,000-25,000 juveniles per hectare over an eight-month growout period. Farm yields range from 500 to 1,500 kilograms per hectare. With all-male culture, growth rates increase, feed conversions improve and the growout period can be reduced. Only 5% of animals are considered runts, compared to 15% in mixed-sex culture.

 

Stocked at 250,000 juveniles per hectare, nursery ponds have survival rates of 70-80% after 45-60 days. To increase survivals, farmers put folded coconut leaves in the ponds as hideouts. Skilled laborers "sex" (separate) the male and female juveniles, transferring the males to growout ponds and selling the females or stocking them separately. All-female farming looks promising.

 

Feed conversion ratios are 1.8 to 2.0:1 for mixed culture and 1.2:1 for all-male culture. Farmers in Andhra Pradesh have traditionally used commercial, pelletized feed produced by seven major manufacturers. About 25-30% of the farmers in the area use home-made feeds that incorporate locally available ingredients. They develop the formulas based on trial and error during one or two crops, then contract with local feed mills to manufacture the feed. Locally made feeds cost around $335 a ton, while commercial brands cost $580 to $710 a ton. Because results from local feeds are highly variable, commercial brands dominate the market.

 

Based on techniques developed by researchers at the College of Fisheries in Kochi during the early 1990s, successful commercial production of scampi seed began in 1999. Currently there are 71 hatcheries in India, 43 of them in Andhra Pradesh and the rest mainly in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and West Bengal. Installed production capacity is about 1.8 billion postlarvae a year, although the actual output is significantly lower than that. Many hatcheries are built with an initial investment ranging from $100,000 to $200,000, and, depending on market conditions, may also produce marine shrimp seedstock. Seed prices fluctuate wildly, influenced more by competing hatcheries than by supply and demand. The price per 1,000 postlarvae went from an all-time high of about $30 in late 2000, to $12 from 2001 to mid-2003, to below $4 in 2004, then up again to the current levels of $5-7/1,000. Postlarvae from wild broodstock captured in Kerala command a higher price, $8-9/1,000.

 

Compared to marine shrimp broodstock, prawn broodstock is reasonably priced at $60 for 100, 40-50-gram animals. Berried females over 100 grams from the Vembanad Lake along Kerala's coast go for $300 for 100 because they are thought to be disease free.

 

Domesticated stocks at commercial farms have been inbred for several generations and exhibit a general decline in productivity involving early sexual maturity, susceptibility to diseases and low fecundity and larval viability. There appears to be distinct genetic diversity among the native stocks of Macrobrachium species in the rivers of central Kerala, Orissa, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. Research is under way at the state agricultural universities and central Aquaculture Research Institute on genetic diversity, selective breeding, disease resistance, stock improvement, and hybridization of different prawn strains and species.

 

Source: The Global Aquaculture Advocate (http://www.gaalliance.org). Editor, Darryl Jory (dejry2525@aol.com). Freshwater Prawn Farming in India—Status, Prospects. Dr. C. Mohanakumaran Nair (Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries Kerala Agricultural University, Panangad, Kochi 682 506, Kerala, India, email naircm@hotmall.com) and Dr. K.R. Salin (KVK, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala, India). Volume 9, Issue 6, Page 34, November/December 2006.

 

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