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« เมื่อ: กันยายน 22, 2006, 01:53:41 PM »

Moreton Bay Bug Farm

The New South Wales Land and Environment Court has ruled in favor of a lobster (Thenus orientalis, a slipper lobster, the Moreton Bay bug) farm near Chinderah. A spokesperson for the company that had twice stopped the farm in the courts says his company will not continue the fight. The farm will be the first commercial-scale lobster production facility of its kind in the world. Local sugarcane farmers condemned the project, claiming it would devastate the area in times of severe flooding. A spokesperson for the Tweed Canegrowers Association said, "It just appears the State Government is hell-bent on putting the bug farm there regardless of the problems in the future."

Source: FisheNews (an email supplement to Austasia Aquaculture magazine, www.austasiaaquaculture.com.au). Editor, Tim Walker (austasiaaquaculture@netspace.net.au). Other Crustaceans/Chinderah Bug Farm Approved--Again. August 24, 2006.

Quality Feeds Pay

Continuous pressure on the shrimp feed producers to reduce feed prices has resulted in a gradual decrease in nutritional standards for shrimp feed around the world. Cheap shrimp feeds, produced by eliminating the most expensive ingredients, don't always result in lower costs. Obviously, the resulting "nutritional gaps" involve risks, particularly in intensive farming where shrimp depend on the feed for most of their nutrition.

This paper reviews ongoing work on improving profitability in shrimp farming by using tailor-made feeds. In collaboration with shrimp farms in Panama (CAMACO) and Brazil (Produtos Marinhos, Ltda.), the researchers' tests included production trials in extensive farming areas (up to 55 hectares per treatment) and in net pens suspended in growout ponds (100 m2). A shrimp feed line was designed based on standard feed mill ingredients, plus nutrients to attract shrimp, enhance their cholesterol and lipid utilization, and reduce stress and disease. Harvests clearly demonstrated that it pays to use quality feeds.

Source: The CD of the Aqua 2006 Abstracts (Florence, Italy, May 2006). Tailoring Shrimp Feed Formulation for Maximizing Profitability: Farm Demonstrations with Litopenaeus Vannamei in Panama and Brazil. Peter Coutteau (p.coutteau@inve.be), Roberto Chamorro, Werner Jost, Rigoberto Camargo, Alí Vaca, Diogo Villaca, Jose Domingos and Marcos Santos (INVE Aquaculture Nutrition, Hoogveld 91-93, B-9200 Dendermonde, Belgium). Information: John Cooksey, World Aquaculture Conference Management, P.O. Box 2302, Valley Center, CA 92082 USA (phone 760-751-5005, fax 760-751-5003, email worldaqua@aol.com, webpage www.was.org).

Mangrove Destruction

At "Mangroves and Community Life: The Socio-Environmental Impacts of Shrimp Farming" (Fortaleza, Ceará, August 21-24, 2006), the 166 participants concluded that mangrove destruction by shrimp farmers was accelerating, especially in the Northeast. They said: "We stand against the expansion of shrimp farming in Brazil at the same time that we demand the halt to the concession of new permits and financing of the activity of shrimp cultivation, as well as the embargo of installed farms and recuperation of degraded areas."

They cited:

• Unprecedented privatization of public waters and public and indigenous lands
• Expulsion of local populations
• Felling of mangroves
• Salinization of fresh water
• Pollution of rivers, tidal channels and estuaries
• Increasing reductions in fisheries (shellfish, crustaceans and fish)
• Impoverishment of the local people

Source: Growfish (Gippsland Aquaculture Industry Network, Inc., http://www.growfish.com.au/default.asp). Mangrove destruction by shrimp farming denounced (http://www.growfish.com.au/content.asp?contentid=7346). August 30, 2006.

Shrimp Trader Stabbed to Death

In the state of Orissa, Debesh Bera, a shrimp trader, was stabbed to death during a dispute over the share of profits from a jointly operated shrimp pond. With the shrimp harvesting season at its peak, fear hangs in the air, as farmers worry about more violence and clashes. Earlier in the year, some farmers were forced off their ponds by rival groups and some farmers had their ponds poisoned with pesticides.

Source: The Statesman. Prawn trade causes disputes (http://www.thestatesman.net/page.news.php?clid=9&theme=&usrsess=1&id=128231). Statesman News Service. August 29, 2006.


On August 30, 2006, M. Rahmat Ibrahim, Secretary to the Directorate General of Fishery Affairs, predicted that Indonesia's 150,500 hectares of shrimp ponds will produce 350,000 metric tons of farmed shrimp in 2006:

• 110,000 tons of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from 93,500 hectares of ponds

• 240,000 tons of western white shrimp (P. vannamei) from 57,000 hectares of ponds

Shrimp farming employs 194,316.

Source: Antara News. Indonesia's shrimps production in 2006 projected at 350,000 tons (http://www.antara.co.id/en/seenws/?id=19195). August 31, 2006.

Investment from Kuwait

Chabahar, Sistan-Baluchestan Province...A 1,200-hectare shrimp farm is being built in this southeastern port city in a joint venture with Kuwait. European experts working for the Kuwaiti company will train the local people in shrimp farming. When completed, the farm will employ an estimated 1,500.

Source: Mehr.News. Economic news in brief/Iran, Kuwait to farm shrimps in Chabahar (http://www.mehrnews.ir/en/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=373902). August 30, 2006.

Smuggling Penaeus vannamei

August 31, 2006, marked the conclusion of the "Conference on Sustainable Aquaculture" organized by the Tambuyog Development Center (TDC) and the Philippine Fisheries and Aquaculture Board (FAB). During the conference, the smuggling of the western white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) came up:

Pablo Rosales, chairman of a group of fisherfolk, said, "Talking about sustainable aquaculture practices in the Philippines becomes meaningless if the smuggling of aquaculture products with diseases is not stopped immediately."

On June 10-20, 2006, according to Arsenio Tanchuling, TDC executive director, some P. vannamei were smuggled into Cebu and transported to two hatcheries, one on Cebu Island (Visayan Islands, between Bohol and Negros islands) and the other in Ipil (a town in the far west of Mindanao Island).

On August 22, 2006, Chingling Tanco, FAB chair, wrote: "Aside from the two hatcheries mentioned--in Ipil and in Cebu--it has been heard also that many other new hatcheries are popping up all over the country and thus can no longer be policed." She added, "In lieu of the fear that this potential animal poses clear danger on our native shrimp species, the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources can actually impose controls on importation of broodstock by allowing only specific pathogen free and specific pathogen resistant (SPF/SPR) broodstock."

TDC's Jaime Escober, Jr., disagreed: "The problem with this is that today we have very weak law enforcement. We therefore believe that smuggling of P. vannamei (that are neither specific pathogen free nor specific pathogen resistant) will continue. One reason is that smuggled vannamei from unreliable sources are cheaper than the SPF/SPR variety."

In view of the above, TDC stated its official position was: "We are unable to stop smuggling of vannamei. We don't have the capacity to monitor and prevent the spread of shrimp diseases at present. Our local aquaculture operators continue to practice unsustainable methods that contribute to the spread of shrimp diseases, such as overstocking, overfeeding and overuse of antibiotics."

Source: INQ7Money. Commentary/Smuggling deadly diseases into Philippines (http://business.inq7.net/money/topstories/view_article.php?article_id=18392). Ernesto Ordoñez (phone/fax 632 8522112, email agriwatchphil@yahoo.com). September 1, 2006.

Vannamei, A Pot of Gold

In August 2004, the Bureau of Fisheries (BFAR) and Agri-Fisheries World, Inc., began studies to determine if Penaeus vannamei, the western white shrimp, was a suitable species for hatchery and growout operation in the Philippines.

Broodstock for the project were obtained from Kona Bay Maritime Resources and Molokai Sea Farms International in Hawaii, USA. About 132 million postlarvae were produced and distributed to 25 accredited farms.

At a seminar for accredited farms (currently 32) in early September 2006, Teofilo "Jun" Rivera, one of the first P. vannamei farmers in the Philippines, discussed his progress so far. Rivera is known as "Mr. Vannamei", and calls the species a "pot of gold".

Rivera became famous for farming vannamei at his eight-hectare farm in Cabangan, Zambales (Luzon Island, north and west of Manila) two years ago. Now he is the president of the White Shrimp Growers Association, a Luzon-wide group with 32 accredited vannamei farmers. He said his income from raising vannamei is four times higher than it was from raising tilapia and milkfish.

Rivera tried farming the giant tiger shrimp (P. monodon), and said it was not profitable. "Where is tiger shrimp now? Nobody is earning from tiger shrimp now, so what's their alternative?"

Rivera converted his entire 14-hectare farm to vannamei. He told the other accredited growers that the initial yield of shrimp from his eight-hectare pond reached 60 tons. Along with the other accredited growers, he urged the government to lift the ban on commercial vannamei farming. Rivera plans to contest the ban. He said growers are resorting to smuggling because they know vannamei will put more money in their pockets.

Dr. Westly Rosario, interim executive director of the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute and chief of the Bureau of Fisheries/National Integrated Fisheries Technology Center, noted that disease had forced 80 percent of the monodon hatcheries and farms to close down.

He said vannamei farms should be accredited to ensure that they are biosecure. So far, he said, the survival rate of vannamei at the test farms has been 45 to 65 percent, considered "very high" with production levels of five to seven tons per hectare per harvest in about 100 to 150 days.

Source: Philstar.com. Ex-politician finds 'pot of gold' (http://www.philstar.com/philstar/News200609030403.htm). Eva Visperas. September 3, 2006.

United States
Maine--Do Lobsters Feel Pain?

In June 2006, Whole Foods Market, the nation's largest natural-foods retailer, stopped selling live lobsters because they're not handled in a manner that meets the company's quality-of-life standards for animals.

Lobsters have a primitive nervous system, similar to that of a cricket or grasshopper. "Basically, lobsters have no brain," says Robert Bayer, Ph.D., executive director of the Lobster Institute at the University of Maine. "They don't have the physiological software to process pain. ...I'm not aware of any bona fide studies that suggest lobsters feel pain."

Bayer points to a February 2005 study conducted by a University of Oslo scientist and funded by the Norwegian government that found lobsters and other decapod crustaceans "have some capacity of learning, but it is unlikely they feel pain." Source: SeaFood Business (www.seafoodbusiness.com). Editor, Fiona Robinson (frobinson@divcom.com). Science, not sentiment, is key to live-lobster sales (http://www.seafoodbusiness.com/features.shtml#2). Steven Hedlund (shedlund@divcom.com). V-25, N-8, P-28, August 2006.

Prices Down, Then Up

The Fisheries Ministry said it expects shrimp prices to continue declining during September 2006, as bumper harvests reach markets. In August, the price for unprocessed shrimp slumped by $0.62 to $0.95 per kilo for 30-count animals, however, prices are hovering at an average $1.56 to $1.87 a kilo higher than last year. Prices are expected to recover later in the year, especially for tiger shrimp because of a strong outlook on orders from the USA, the European Union and Japan.

Source: Viet Nam News. Seafood exports reach $2 billion: ministry (http://vietnamnews.vnagency.com.vn/showarticle.php?num=05BUS290806). August 29, 2006.


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