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The application of risk analysis in aquatic animal health management

E.J. Peeler a,*, A.G. Murray b, A. Thebault c,
E. Brun d, A. Giovaninni e, M.A. Thrush f
a EpiCentre, Private Bag 11222, Institute of Veterinary and Animal Biomedical Sciences,
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
b Fisheries Research Services, Marine Laboratory, PO Box 101, 375 Victoria Road,
Aberdeen AB11 9DB, UK
c Agence Franc¸ais de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments, Paris, France
d National Veterinary Institute, PO Box 8156, 0033 Oslo, Norway
e Istituto Zooprofilattico Spermentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise,
Via Campo Boario 64100, Teramo, Italy
f Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Barrack Road,
Weymouth DT4 8UB, UK

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 81 (2007) 3–20

Abstract
Risk analysis has only been regularly used in the management of aquatic animal health in recent
years. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS) stimulated
the application of risk analysis to investigate disease risks associated with international trade (import
risk analysis—IRA). A majority (9 of 17) of the risk analyses reviewed were IRA. The other major
focus has been the parasite of Atlantic salmon—Gyrodactylus salaris. Six studies investigated the
spread of this parasite, between countries, rivers and from farmed to wild stocks, and clearly
demonstrated that risk analysis can support aquatic animal health policy development, from
international trade and biosecurity to disease interaction between wild and farmed stocks. Other
applications of risk analysis included the spread of vertically transmitted pathogens and disease
emergence in aquaculture. The Covello–Merkhofer, risk analysis model was most commonly used
and appears to be a flexible tool not only for IRA but also the investigation of disease spread in other
contexts. The limitations of the identified risk assessments were discussed. A majority were qualitative, partly due to the lack of data for quantitative analysis, and this, it can be argued, constrained
their usefulness for trade purposes (i.e. setting appropriate sanitary measures); in other instances, a
qualitative resultwas found to be adequate for decisionmaking.Alack of information about the disease
hazards of the large number of fish species traded is likely to constrain quantitative analysis for a number
of years. The consequence assessment element of a risk analysis was most likely to be omitted, or
limited in scope and depth, rarely extending beyond examining the evidence of susceptibility of farmed
andwild species to the identified hazard. The reasons for this are discussed and recommendations made
to develop guidelines for a consistent, systematic and multi-disciplinary approach to consequence
assessment. Risk analysis has improved decision making in aquatic animal health management by
providing a transparent method for using the available scientific information. The lack of data is the
main constraint to the application of risk analysis in aquatic animal health. The identification of critical
parameters is an important output fromrisk analysis modelswhich should be used to prioritise research.

# 2007 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Keywords: Risk analysis; Epidemiology; Aquatic; Fish; Health
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