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ผู้เขียน หัวข้อ: Percussion and electrical stunning of atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  (อ่าน 2069 ครั้ง)
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« เมื่อ: กุมภาพันธ์ 13, 2010, 06:44:40 PM »

Percussion and electrical stunning of atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after
dewatering and subsequent effect on brain and heart activity
E. Lambooij, E. Grimsbo, J.W. van de Vis, H. Reimert, R. Nortvedt, B. Roth

Received date: 27 April 2009
Revised date: 17 December 2009
Accepted date: 19 December 2009
Please cite this article as: Lambooij, E., Grimsbo, E., van de Vis, J.W., Reimert, H.,
Nortvedt, R., Roth, B., Percussion and electrical stunning of atlantic salmon (Salmo
salar) after dewatering and subsequent effect on brain and heart activity, Aquaculture
(2010), doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.12.022


Abstract
The overall objective of the study was to evaluate a percussive and an electrical stunning
method under laboratory conditions in Atlantic salmon. Evidence of unconsciousness and
insensibility of the salmon was provided on the electroencephalogram (EEG) by the
appearance of slow waves and spikes, followed by a strong depression in electrical activity.
This phenomenon was observed in 17 salmon after percussive stunning using an air pressure
of 8.1 to 10 bars, whilst 8 fish were considered conscious at pressures below 8.1 bars although
some were seemingly unconscious on behaviour. Consequences were a haemorrhage in the
brain cavity in 15 out of 17 fish, broken upper or lower jaws in 9 fish and eye burst in 8 fish.
A general epileptiform insult (unconscious and insensible) was obtained by delivering a
voltage, consisting of a direct current (DC) coupled with 100 Hz alternating current (AC)
with a peak value of ≈112 volt (V), head to body, for ≈0.5 s. The total duration of the insult
was 62 ± 44 s (mean ± SD; n=25) which was followed by minimal brain activity in 19 fish.
The heart rate was 20 ± 7 beats/min prior to stunning. After stunning the electrocardiogram
(ECG) revealed fibrillation for 22 ± 15 s and became irregular and showed extra systolea
(ventrical contraction) afterwards.
Exposing the salmon for 5 s with electricity followed by a gill cut resulted that 1 out of 3 fish
recovered temporary after 3 min. Heamorrahges were not observed in the filets. Average
current for head to body electrical dry stunning was 668 milliampere (mA) root mean square
(RMS) with a average stunning voltage 107.9 Vrms. Electrical head to body stunning can be
recommended when using coupled AC and DC current of 668mArms and ≈107 Vrms. The
salmon can be stunned in ≈0.5 s. However, a correct bleeding procedure should be developed.
For percussive stunning we conclude that if sufficient force is used the fish will be rendered
unconscious insensible which result in damage of the carcass, whereas a coupled AC and DC
source for dry electrical head to body stunning can be recommended.

Keywords: Atlantic salmon; Salmo salar; electrical stunning: percussion stunning; EEG;
ECG; behaviour.
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