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หัวข้อ: Cobia culture in Taiwan: current status and problems
เริ่มหัวข้อโดย: mei ที่ มกราคม 16, 2010, 08:06:21 AM
I Chiu Liaoa,b,*, Ting-Shih Huangc, Wann-Sheng Tsaic,
Cheng-Ming Hsuehd, Su-Lean Change, Eduardo M. Lean˜oa
a National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan
b National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan
c Penghu Marine Biology Research Center, Fisheries Research Institute, Paisha, Penghu 884, Taiwan
d No. 32, Nei-an Village, Siyu Township, Penghu, Taiwan
eTungkang Marine Laboratory, Fisheries Research Institute, Pingtung 928, Taiwan

Received 18 November 2003; received in revised form 27 February 2004; accepted 2 March 2004
Aquaculture 237 (2004) 155–165

Cobia, Rachycentron canadum, is a widely distributed species from the Indo-Pacific waters to the
southern Atlantic Ocean. In Taiwan, it is an indigenous and an ideal species for cage culture. Due to
its high market value in both domestic and international markets, the technology for its culture has
rapidly developed in the past few years. These include mass propagation through natural spawning of
captive broodstocks, larval rearing techniques, nursery production in tanks, ponds and nearshore
cages, and grow-out culture in offshore cages. Reproduction in captivity is relatively easy because
sexual maturity often occurs within 2 years of culture. Spontaneous spawning occurs year around at
water temperatures of 23–27 jC, with peak during spring and autumn. Fertilized eggs hatch within
21–37 h at water temperature of 31–22 jC. Larval growth is fast, and larvae are vitally robust and
environment tolerant compared to other marine fishes. Fry can be mass-produced in outdoor ponds at
relatively low cost. Weaning of fry from 20 days old onwards to pellet feeds is feasible. Nursery
rearing from 10–30 to 1000 g can be done in either outdoor ponds or nearshore cages. Major
diseases affecting cobia include bacterial (pasteurellosis, vibriosis and streptococcosis), parasitic
(myxosporidea, Trichodina, Neobenedenia and Amyloodinium infestations), and viral (lymphocystis)
ones. In recent years, intensive and super-intensive recirculation systems for nursery (from 2 to 100–
150 g) were developed with survival rates of more than 90%. In nursery and grow-out offshore
cages, 100–600 g cobia were cultured within 1–1.5 years when they reached 6–8 kg for export to
Japan, or 8–10 kg for the domestic market. Currently, around 80% of marine cages in Taiwan are
devoted to cobia culture. However, some problems still exist in cobia culture that needs to be
addressed and solved to increase production. These include high mortality due to stress during
transport from nursery tanks/inshore cages to grow-out cages and diseases during nursery and growout
culture resulting in low survival, and consequently poor harvest.

Keywords: Cobia culture; Broodstock management; Larval rearing; Nursery; Grow-out; Disease problems

D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.