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ผู้เขียน หัวข้อ: Hydrology of inland brackishwater shrimp ponds in Chachoengsao, Thailand Robert  (อ่าน 441 ครั้ง)
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Abstract
This study focuses on a new trend in shrimp aquaculture, the development of brackishwater
ponds for Penaeus monodon culture in inland freshwater areas of Thailand?s Central
Plain. Water balances were calculated for ponds and reservoirs at an inland shrimp farm in
Chachoengsao, Thailand, between May and July 1999. Regulated inflow and outflow were
the largest water fluxes, averaging 0.94 and 0.70 cm:day. Other daily average water gains
were rainfall (0.52 cm:day) and runoff (1.7 cm:day), and other water losses were evaporation
(0.31 cm:day) and seepage (0.52 cm:day). Over an entire crop cycle, of average length 109
days, average water inputs were: initial pond filling (84 cm); regulated inflow (103 cm);
rainfall (57 cm); and runoff (3 cm). Average outputs were: regulated outflow (76 cm); seepage
(57 cm); evaporation (34 cm); and draining at harvest (87 cm). The main feature of note in
the water balance is the large volume of regulated outflow. All regulated outflow and most
(82%) of the pondwater drained at harvest went directly to the irrigation canal system. Such
large volumes of discharge could have serious environmental implications because small
inland waterways have low assimilative capacity and pond effluent is saline. Consumptive
water use for 14 inland shrimp ponds and reservoirs averaged 0.8390.14 cm:day. Consumptive
water use was also measured for 11 nearby rice fields, the main land use in the regions
where inland shrimp farming is proliferating. Rice paddy water use averaged 0.9190.17
cm:day. There was no significant difference in the daily consumptive water use of shrimp
ponds and rice fields, suggesting that conversion from rice farming to shrimp farming would
have little net impact on water availability for irrigation. ? 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All
rights reserved.
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