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ผู้เขียน หัวข้อ: Ecological engineering in aquaculture  (อ่าน 1827 ครั้ง)
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« เมื่อ: กุมภาพันธ์ 21, 2010, 03:09:32 AM »

Ecological engineering in aquaculture — Potential for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) in marine offshore systems

Max Troell a,b,⁎, Alyssa Joyce a,c,d, Thierry Chopin e, Amir Neori f,
Alejandro H. Buschmann g, Jian-Guang Fang h
a The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Box 50005, 104 05 Stockholm, Sweden
b Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
c Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway
d Institute of Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, 2329 West Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada
e Centre for Coastal Studies and Aquaculture, and Centre for Environmental and Molecular Algal Research, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 5050, Saint John, New Brunswick,
Canada E2L 4L5
f Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research Ltd., National Center for Mariculture, P.O. Box 1212, Eilat 88112, Israel
g Centro i-mar, Universidad de Los Lagos, Camino Chinquihue km 6, Puerto Montt, Chile
h Mariculture Ecology Division, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute (YSFRI), Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, 106 Nanjing Road, Qingdao, 266071, PR China

Aquaculture 297 (2009) 1–9

Keywords:
Offshore integrated multi-trophic aquaculture
Bioremediation
Sustainability

a b s t r a c t

The marine aquaculture sector is growing rapidly. Offshore aquaculture installations have been drawing
increasing attention from researchers, industry and policy makers as a promising opportunity for large-scale expansion of the aquaculture industry. Simultaneously, there has also been increased interest in both landbased and nearshore aquaculture systems which combine fed aquaculture species (e.g. finfish), with inorganic extractive aquaculture species (e.g. seaweeds) and organic extractive species (e.g. suspension- and deposit-feeders) cultivated in proximity. Such systems, described as integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA), should increase significantly the sustainability of aquaculture, based on a number of potential economic, societal and environmental benefits, including the recycling of waste nutrients from higher trophic-level species into production of lower trophic-level crops of commercial value. Several of the challenges facing IMTA in nearshore environments, are also relevant for offshore aquaculture; moreover, the exposed nature of the open ocean adds a number of technical and economic challenges. A variety of technologies have been developed to deal with these constraints in offshore environments, but there remains a number of challenges in designing farm sites that will allow extractive species (e.g. seaweeds and shellfish) to be integrated in fed aquaculture systems and be able to withstand the strong drag forces of open oceans. The development of offshore IMTA requires the identification of environmental and economic risks and benefits of such large-scale systems, compared with similarly-scaled monocultures of high trophic-level finfish in offshore systems. The internalizing of economic, societal and environmental costs of finfish monoculture production by the bioremediative services of extractive species in IMTA offshore systems should also be examined and analyzed. The results of such investigations will help determine the practical value of adopting the IMTA approach as a strategy for the development of offshore aquaculture.
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