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หัวข้อ: Guidelines for aquaculture effluent management at the farm-level
เริ่มหัวข้อโดย: mei ที่ มกราคม 23, 2010, 07:53:54 PM
Guidelines for aquaculture effluent management at the farm-level

Claude E. Boyd*
Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 5419, USA

Aquaculture 226 (2003) 101– 112

Pressure from environmental groups will force most governments to impose effluent
regulations on aquaculture. Shrimp and fish producers are concerned that these regulations will
be unnecessarily restrictive and expensive. Most pond aquaculture cannot be conducted without
discharge. Fish and shrimp farms tend to be concentrated in specific regions, but typically they are
sprawling operations where large volumes of relatively dilute effluents are released at many points.
Effluents from pond aquaculture resemble non-point sources of pollution more than point sources.
Thus, application of traditional effluent treatment methods to meet effluent standards, as done for
point source pollution, will be difficult or impossible. Many involved in aquaculture believe that
application of best management practices (BMPs) could be a reasonable and affordable way to
improve the quality and reduce the volume of pond effluents. During recent years, several
organizations have suggested systems of BMPs for making pond aquaculture more environmentally
responsible. These include international development organizations (Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations and International Finance Corporation), industry groups
(Global Aquaculture Alliance, Australian Prawn Producers Association, Marine Shrimp Culture
Industry of Thailand, and Alabama Catfish Producers), a research center (Coastal Resources
Center, University of Rhode Island), and state agencies in the USA (Missouri Department of
Natural Resources and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services). The contents
of BMP documents presented by the different groups are remarkably similar. Although the BMP
approach is largely a ‘‘paper list’’ at present, the topic is being discussed widely, and producers are
becoming more aware of environmental issues. There is an obvious attempt by producers in Latin
America, Asia, Australia, and the United States to improve production practices, and some
producers are voluntarily adopting BMPs. Many shrimp producers in several nations have installed
settling basins, and a few large shrimp farms monitor effluent quality. The Aquaculture
Certification Council (ACC) plans to implement a certification program based primarily on
compliance with BMPs during 2003. There also is considerable discussion among producers and
governmental agencies in several nations regarding BMPs, and it is expected that regulatory
programs based on BMPs will be forthcoming.

Keywords: Effluents; Sustainable aquaculture; Best management practices; Aquaculture ponds; Codes of conduct