˹͹ᴧ
ӹ ز (º§)
      ˹͹ᴧøҵԻѵѡѹǧ§ ੾лҵͻ§˹͹ᴧЪ§ªԴ
շʴ ͹˹͹ᴧ͹غѵӡзѵʹѵҡԭԺⵢͧѵ٧鹴 ˹͹ᴧЪŴѭҹѹͧ
ҡ¢ͧ紷ͤҧ ѨغѹҤ˹͹ᴧ٧ҡöԹ͡˹ѧҧ Ѱԡ ͧ
ԧ ͧ˹͹ᴧҡ 㹢з觼ԵҵŴŧ ˹͹ᴧøҵԷçسҷҧ٧Ǥ
˹͹ᴧʴ лСͺõչ 5.29 ѹ 1.20 õ 1.22 0.89 ǹСͺͧʿ
0.06 ѧҹ٧֧ 495.51 ͡š
ѡɳз
       ˹͹ᴧ繵͹ (Larvae) ͧŧԴ˹觫觪Ǻҹ¡ "鹹" (Midge) ժͷҧԷʵ Chironomus sp. Ѵǧ
Chironomidae ѹѺ Diptera ѹѺǡѺا 繡׹ѹ鹹Ө״ŧ֧繵ͧ¹ѡɳТͧ鹹ӵ (Fldult)
ͧ鹹Ө״ٻҧاǼ˹ǴẺ躹 (Plumose) ǹ硪ͺ˴ǹ͡ 8-10 ѡ繽٧ǹ
ʧҧ ªͺҧ㹹ӷʧµ 2,300 ͧ Ὰǹ ѡɳ ͧµҨ
鹷ըشմ пѡ繵˹͹ 3-4 ѹ ˹͹ᴧ֧¡ "˹͹ᴧ" ӵ 3-18 ǹǢͧ˹͹ᴧ
¡ҡӵѴյ繨شմ 1 բ Ѻ˹ҷҴҡ տѹ͡ç ˹ҷ躴á͹׹
ҡ âͧ˹͹ᴧ Թѵط (Detritus) բҴ硾ͷһҡ ǹ͡Т˭͡繷
1 ҧԴ (species) ѡɳ ӵ 12 ͧ 3 ͧáѹ¡ Cephalo-thorax ͹ 10-12 ѹ
ҧ͡ (Tube) Ź Թѵط㹹ӻ͡Ъִǹ͡ Т 2 dzͧ¢֧ӵ лͧ
ѹʹӼҹ͡ 繷ҧѺҳ͡ਹ ˹͹ᴧ㹻͡ ҹ 6-8 ѹ й¡ С͹Ҵѡ
(Prepupa) ͤú˹˹͹ᴧѴ͡дѡ (Pupa) 觨ѡɳФ¡Ѻ١اǺҹ¡ "" ᴧ
˹͹ᴧйҳ 1-2 ѹ ¨ЪͺµǴ觵駩ҡѺǹѧҡ鹨֧͡Һ¹繵·¡ "ԹӨ״" ǧ
ԵͧŧԴйҹҳ 21-28 ѹ ԹӨ״㹻ᶺ͹ǧêԵ鹡ԹӨ״㹻ᶺ˹
ԸաüԵ˹͹ᴧ
üԵ˹͹ᴧö дǡѡء¡¹Ẻҵ Фäӹ֧֧ѡ ѧ仹
1. شó 蹤شԹѵط Թѵط¹觡¡Թҧ Թѵط㹹ӡ
ѵشԺ㹡ҧ͡˹͹ᴧ
2. Ǵ ҡѡɳй¢ͧԹӨ״ͺҧ㹷ʧ ͼԵ˹͹ᴧ֧ͧҧǴ¹ẺҵԴdz
ʧ¡÷ӷѧ
3. Ȩҡѵ ˹͹ᴧøҵԷҡ ѧ鹨֧ѵªԴͺԹ˹͹ᴧ ١ ١´ ١ Щй鹡ûͧѹ
ӨѴѵ˹͹ᴧ駡͹üԵ ҧüԵ֧ӤѭͧüԵ
4. չ¹ҹѧ§ҧ͢Ѵѭͧ˹͹ᴧ˹Թ
ͼԵ˹͹ᴧ
     ˹͹ᴧöԵѧ좹Ҵ硨֧ͫ좹Ҵ˭ »ɵáѡͧԵҡͫ좹Ҵ鹼ٹҧ
0.80, 1.00 1.20 ҫը˹µҹʴءҧ ¹йҡ͡Ҵѧ좹Ҵ˭ 鹼ٹҧ
1.50 1.65 öҫҡҹʴءҧǪҹԧ ҧл չ ͨѧѴ§ ҹ طûҡ ͧ
觷 ҢҴ˭ա鹼ٹҧ֧ 2.00 èеͧ觷 3-7 ѹҡҹʴءҧҴ˭㹨ѧմطûҡ ź Ҫ 繵 ѧǷա鹶ѧͨеͧ෾鹡鹶ѧͧ ͡ҹѧնѧ좹Ҵ˭鹼ٹҧ֧ 3 觨¹¡Һͫ
Ҩ еͧҧҧѺ੾Ы觨йẺӷͫ좹Ҵ价֧ҹ Ѻ٧ѧءҴդ٧ 2дѺ 30
35 ૹ ѧ좹Ҵ鹼ٹҧ 0.80,1.00 1.20 ѧ繶ѧҴҡ 2 鹨Դ㹶ѧ
Ѻʧᴴ żԵ˹͹ᴧ觵ŧҡ ѧ좹Ҵ˭鹼ٹҧ 1.50,1.65 2.00 Ҩ 1 2 ͧ
ͧɵá ҵͧöѧդ֡ҳ 60-65 ૹ ѧ좹Ҵ٧ 35 ૹë͹ѹ 2 жҵͧöѧդ֡
50-55 ૹ ѧ좹Ҵ٧ 35 ૹ §ǡ԰ͭա 1 ֡ͧѧա 10 ૹ
ҳ 40 ૹ §ѺüԵøҵԷ˹͹ᴧ ᴧ ¹Ө״ жɵáѧͧûѴҡҹա
¹йԴ仢ẺӶѧҡʶҹ͹ çҺŻШҹҹ (¡㹡ا෾) ẺӶѧ
ǺҹѧǺҹҧѧ纹ӽ ෾鹡鹶ѧ͹ҨӾҴ§ ҧ 2 ૹдǡ㹡
к¹ӷ ˹Ңͧ鹡鹶ѧ˹ҧ 4-6 ૹ ֧öѺ˹ѡͧӷԵжѧ좹Ҵҹ٧
֡Թ 0.70 ШзżԵŴŧͧԹع㹡ҧѧǶ֧Фӹdz鹷ѧҧ仹
ҧ ʴ鹷¢ͧѧ좹Ҵҧ
鹼ٹҧ()
鹷ѧ(ҧ)
0.80
0.45
1.00
0.75
1.20
1.00
1.50
1.50
1.65
2.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
6.50
 

ԸաüԵ˹͹ᴧ
     ҡ֡ҡüԵ˹͹ᴧ㹺ͫ좹Ҵҧ żԵͧ˹͹ᴧ㹺ͫ좹Ҵ 10 ҧ ¡Һͫ
Ҵ 50 ҧ ººżԵ˹¾鹷 ѧ üԵ˹͹ᴧҡѧ좹Ҵ硨֧Ѻ÷ͧԸաüԵҢ
ͧ ѹйѡ㹡üԵҡҡüԵʹѺʹع§Ҩӹǹҡ üԵ˹͹ᴧ㹶ѧԸաç 5 鹵͹
1.
2.
3.
4. ǼżԵ
5. äǺͼԵ
鹵͹ 1 ҡҧеҡͻͧѹСӨѴѵ ӷѧҧҹ˹ ٧ҳ 1-2 ҧҡͺ
ҳ 1-2 ͺͺͻҳ ? ͧʹѧἹҾСͺ ѧҨʴҧ ѧ šյ Ǵ
ǹ駷 öҴѴŧСͺӷѧ ҡǺѧǵ ǵ鹡жԹ ˧ żԵ
˹͹ᴧ٧ ʹյͼԵ˹͹ᴧҡѺҴԹǹ Թǹ ͷ¢ ͧ鹡鹺ͼԵҧ 2-3 ૹ ˹͹ᴧеͧŹʴطӻ͡ ѭ˭Ҥ ͹˹͹ᴧ͡ҡԹ觷ҡ Ѻɵáͼ
ӹҭ 㹻Ѩغѹҡҹͧ龺ҡüԵ˹͹ᴧ㹶ѧͺͫԹͷҺͧ鹡鹺͡ѺŴ觢 ǧ¢
ͧ͹˹͹ᴧҡ˹ҴԹ Ըժ͹˹͹ᴧµǢ 駼ŨҡâҴŹʴطӻ͡ǧêԵͧ˹͹ᴧ״͡
е͹С͹Ҵѡ ˹͹ᴧԹѵط ҡʧ ҡ ҡһ ŧ͹ת Ҵ
ӻͧ͡Ź ѧ 㹺ͼԵ˹͹ᴧմԹͷҺͧ鹡͹ͻͧ͡˹͹ᴧ֧ ͧŧ͹ת㹺ͼԵ˹͹ᴧմԹͷͧ鹡鹺ͻͧ͡˹͹ᴧմԹŹ
鹵͹ 2 áͧӨҡ觹ӸҵԴ¼͹ͼ
ŧ͹ 繡ûͧѹСӨѴѵٷջԷҾ дѺӷá 5-10 ૹ ǨسѵԢͧ㹺ͼԵ¤ӹ֧֧
繡ô繴ҧ (pH) ҳ 6.5 - 8.5 繴ҧ (Alkalinity) 50-300 ԡԵ дҧ (Hardness) 75-300 ԡԵ ͷդسѵԢͧҤ繡ô繴ҧ㹪ǧ 6.5 - 8.5 ¤ҤдҧФ繴ҧᵡҧѹҡѡ ҤҤ
ô繴ҧ Ҥ繴ҧеӵ仴 Ը䢤͡ٹ㹻ҳ ¡ҧҡ÷ͧѧѴҹվҤ繡ô
繴ҧҳ 5.6 Ҥ繴ҧ 70 ԡԵ Ҥдҧ 170 ԡԵèеͧٹǹ 㹻ҳ 8-10 ͵ҧ Ҥ繡ô繴ҧФ繴ҧФҤдҧ硹 ٹǻѺسѵԹӨջª»С ѧ
1. »ѺдѺ繡ô繴ҧ٧ 硵С͹ջҳҡѹµժԵ㹺
2. ѡдѺ繡ô繴ҧա¹ŧдѺ繺ѿ (buffer) 㹺ժԵ
3. ӵС͹բ
4. ¦äоҸ㹹µٻ蹷ѹµժԵ
         ٹǨ֧觨Ѻ͡üԵ˹͹ᴧ ٹǷѹªԴ ٹԺ (๵ CaCo3) ٹ
(͡䫴 Cao) ӻٹ (δ͡䫴 Ca (OH2) һѺسѵԢͧ㹺ٹԺ ٹлٹҨЪ»Ѻ
سѵԢͧաһٹԺµǡ ҳ֧¡վɡѺժԵҡ ѧ öһٹԺŴ鹷عüԵ
㹻ҳ¡ жһѺسѵԢͧҧüԵ˹͹ᴧӻٹʤ͹ӻٹԺͻٹ¹Ƿ駡ҡٹ仹ӻٹ
ʨ繾ɡѺ˹͹ᴧ ûѺسѵԢͧӤҾûѺҤ繡ô繴ҧҡ 2/5 ͧҤ繡ô繴ҧ
24 ûѺسѵԢͧӪ ٹǤлҳ 8-12 ͵ҧ ҧѹء 2 ҧ           㹡óշɵáöسѵԢͧͧҹöӵҧѺõǨسѵԢͧʶҺѹԨ»
Ө״ дǡ˵ؼҡ ҡ ҧ·ҹèеǨҤ繡ô繴ҧͧӴµǷҹͧд
ͷǺҹ¡дɾ- (pH) üԵ˹͹ᴧͧҹлʾ§
鹵͹ 3 Թѵط¡鹹Ө״ҧ͡ѡԹѵ Թѵ
ҡʧ (ҨûҡԹת ûҡԹ ) ҧҧ˹͹ӻһ ´Сҡ
Ҽѹͧѵǹ 1:1:1 ҳͧԹѵط 100-150 ͵ҧ բѧࡵ     紷ҡǹͧ⾴ҡżԵеӡ紷ǹͧ⾴ 駹ͧҡ⾴ҡԹ
ѵتԴ ѡԹѵѡ㹺ͼԵ 5-10 ૹ ҹҳ 48 - 72 ֧ա 15 - 20 ૹ
÷ͧ 2 駹 ˵ؼ üԵ˹͹ᴧԸչ繡¹Ẻҵ ¡¡鹹Ө״ҧ ͧ÷觢ѧ
Ө״͡¢ͧԹѵط¨֧ͧѡԹѵش¹ӹԹѵй
سԨ٧ ɵá·ҹ¹ ҧ 2 д ¹͵ͺӶ ѧ "ԹѵҡԹŧҤѹءм¹ͼԵ˹͹ᴧСŧѹ᷹鹹Ө״ ӵдѺͧ
ǤسҾͧӨö§˹͹ᴧԹѵԹ ѧ鹡蹢ͧԹѵطѺ¡鹹Ө״֧
繡蹻ҹҧҳԸբҧ 鹹Ө״ҧŧ㹺ͼԵ˹͹ᴧ 㹺ͨж١ͨҧդسѵͧ
鹹Ө״пѡ͡繵͹˹͹ᴧöԭԺҧʺ "

鹵͹ 4 ǼżԵ üԵ˹͹ᴧԸչö˹͹ᴧáѹ 7 зء ѹԴ͡ѹҹ 20-30 ѹ ѧҡ鹼úǹҡռżԵ֧ҧ Ըա˹͹ᴧҡ¡ê͹¡Ъ͹ ԧ ˹͹ᴧ͡ҡ
͡µǢǹ㹪ǧ 11.00 . - 15.00 . ͧ͹͹˹͹ᴧҡ觼Եҵ 㹺ͫ좹Ҵ˭
ͧŧԹ͹㹺ͼԵöԹǹ 2-3 ҡԹǹ纼żԵҡԹ仨зżԵŴŧ ˹͹ᴧ١еǧêԵ֧ŧ
繵Ǣ˹͹ᴧҴҨ١仴 Ũҡͫ좹Ҵ 10 ҧ ҡʧ㹻ҳ
100-150 ͵ҧ żԵ˹͹ᴧ 30-40 ͵ҧõѹ 㹺ͫ좹Ҵ 50 ҧ żԵ˹͹ᴧҡҤ
40-60 ͵ҧõѹ (2-3 šͺ͵ѹ)           ͡ҡѧ龺˹͹ᴧԵ¡ҡʧ§ҧǨżԵ˹͹ᴧբҴ˭˹͹ᴧԵԹѵتԴ
鹵͹ش äǺͼԵ ԹѵСäǺسѵԢͧ㹺ͼԵ ԹѵҡԹ з
سҾͧŧ鹹Ө״ҧ ˹͹ᴧ㹺͡öçԵԹѵعԹ 㹺ͼԵ
դسҾҴشó鹹Ө״ҧ˹͹ᴧ㹺͡ԭԺ⵪ԹТҴŹ ŧ㹺֧ͨ
йɵáͼӹҭԨóҼżԵѺŵ仹 Ƿҧ㹡ûԺѵԧҹ 50-100 ͵ҧ ء
3-7 ѹ ѡ㹶اԴا㹺ͼԵѡ÷ǡШ价й äǺسѵԢͧӵǨҤ繡ô
繴ҧҧѻ 1 ǻѺسѺԢͧ繡ô繴ҧ٧͵Թ    ҹӢҡк¹ӷ 30-50
繵 ӷͧҹا͹ͼŧ͹дѺ 20-30 ૹ ѡдѺӡ 20 ૹ        Ѻѵ٢ͧ˹͹ᴧЪ͹ԧ͹ҷǹҡѡŧе͹ͧŧ
ѡ˹͹ᴧ
ѡ˹͹ᴧ 4 Ը ѧ
1. ʴ ѡ˹͹ᴧҪзչӨҡͼԵ硹 ûʵ͹硹㹷سԵӻҳ
10-15 ͧöҹѹ˹͹ᴧѧժԵ ˹͹ᴧӹǹ˹觫͡Һ繵
2. ѡ˹͹ᴧҪлԴ дɪЪغ˹͹ᴧ㹷繻ҳ 10-12 ͧ
Ըչö˹͹ᴧҹѹ蹡ѹ˹͹ᴧѧժԵ¹繵¹¡ҡʴ
3. ѡ˹͹ᴧ¡Ǻاʵԡǹ Ըչ˹͹ᴧеѧʴդسҷҧ
͹§ѵӵͧ¾ҡ˹͹ᴧ͹繡͡ѵ§
4. Ẻ ѡ˹͹ᴧԹ͡ Ըաù¹ҺҡʹҡѺѷ͡ ¡Ǻ˹͹ᴧҡɵáǹ觺èպ͵Ҵͧ 觨з˹͹ᴧö 40 繵 ͹
¹ ˹͹ᴧ鹹öçԵ餧ͻԡҢͧժԵ硹 鹷ѵʹ㨷СԹҡ˹͹ᴧ
ѡ¡Ẻ Ѻ´㹡Ẻɹ¹ҨеͧѺШйҶ·ʹ
ɵáõ͹Ҥ
෤Ԥʹ
      ԸաüԵ˹͹ᴧҹµҢͧҹҹҹ͹ҧ ѺѺ͹ŷʹ͹ҡ÷ͧ㹾鹷¨ѧѴ 駺͡
кͧ͢ҪҤҧ ѧѴطûҡ ҹ ا෾ Ҥ˹ ѧѴԨԵ 觹Ѻѧŷͺ
ԧǻ ҤѡɳǴᵡҧѹ ҹöѡ㹡ûءѺʶҹҧ
üԵ˹͹ᴧԸչ繡¹Ẻҵ ҧǴ鹹Ө״ҧ ѧ żԵͧ˹͹ᴧ
觨֧ᵡҧѹ¨Т鹡Ѻҳͧ鹹Ө״㹸ҵԶ֧ 40 繵 60 繵͡ ԴͧԹѵطԸաüԵ ¹֧ʹ෤Ԥʹ㨺ҧС ɵáöԵ˹͹ᴧҧ¢ա Ǥ
1. ԴͧԹѵ 㹡üԵ˹͹ᴧ͡ҡǤ͡ҡʧżԵ˹͹ᴧ٧ͧҡ㹡ҡͧյ͡Һ
ҡ ˹͹ᴧԵҡҡ֧ͧ͡Һ繵 żԵӡ˹͹ᴧԵҡʧ
2. źͼԵ żԵͧ˹͹ᴧ鹡Ѻҳͧ鹹Ө״㹸ҵ觷鹹Ө״ѵШӶǨżԵͧ˹͹ᴧ٧ Ըա
ѧࡵ觢ͧ鹹Ө״ 繺dz觹 ¶֧ 觹ӷҹҹ աͧԹѵط鹡觹 Ǻѧ
ࢵѺ ࢵʧ ѡɳйҴҨмԵ˹͹ᴧͧ
3. ҳʧᴴ ʧᴴѺ繻ѨӤѭѹ˹觨ҡ÷ͧººҺͷѧҨżԵ ͼԵ˹͹ᴧ֧ҧ
Ѻʧᴴʹѹ
4. ö¹ ͼԵ˹͹ᴧʹ㨡Ѻö¹ҡѡ ¡͹դسѵҡ ҡʺó쾺Ӥѭ͡ ѡдѺ
ӡ 20 ૹ
5. ѵ ɵáúҧҹʹ㨡üԵ˹͹ᴧ»¤͡ ء šк Ťҧ ѨغѹҡüԵ˹͹ᴧ
¤͡żԵӡҡԹѵض֧ 16 ¶֧âҴعͧçҹ ʶҹ ˵

ªҡ˹͹ᴧ
     ˹͹ᴧøҵԻѵö͹غѵҧջԷҾ٧ ˹͹ᴧʴСͺ仴¸ҵøҵ
դسҧ ֧աù˹͹ᴧªҧ
- §§ ҵ ͻ§ èӾǡ˹͹ᴧ Ҩʴ§
- ͹غѵ͹ зѵʹѵҡԭԺⵢͧѵ٧
       ͡ҡաù˹͹ᴧªաҧ˹觷͹ҧդӤѭҧ觵͡§駡Ҵ С駡ҴѵɰԨ
Ӥѭͧ öҧѺȪҵ ùӻªҡ˹͹ᴧ繵㹡§駡Ҵ 1 ͹á » ǡ
Ѻ ǧøҵդӤѭ͡§駡Ҵ 觡§á §觾ԧǧøҵǷ
֧ǧԴäкҴաѳҧ ͡ӨѴ ѵ١駻ҳ¾ѹҵԨ֧Ŵŧ价Ըա§
ǧ͹á¹ ҡ Դѭҵͧ
       зáԨ觢ѹ ЪǡҵͧѺǤ˭ 駡üԵżԵ駤سҾ ʹµͼ١آ͹´Ƿҧ
üԵͼšзԧźǴ зӤѭ͵ͧŴ鹷ع§ ;Фҧ׹͹Ҥ֧ա÷ͧª
ҡ˹͹ᴧ ҧǧõҵ ͡§ 1 ͹á ¡駨ª ѧ
1. ˹͹ᴧ դسҷҧ٧§ 1 ͹á ੾С繵 3-14 ѹá
䫫 ѵʹ٧ ö§ͧ Ҵҡ ҡѺС͹վ鹺ͨҾ §ͧ
ҡ
2. øҵ˹͹ᴧѡ ɵáü§駷öҡе鹷ع
3. ѹ¡ѴѺͻ
4. ١ 4 ѹ ¡û١Ẻ鹤͡
˵ 3,4 繡ªҡ˹͹ᴧ ó
      ҡҷ˹͹ᴧǧøҵԷդسҧ觵͡§ѵӢͧҹ㹻Ѩغѹ йɵá÷ҹ
ö˹͹ᴧ任ءѺ§ѵӢͧҹ鹡üԵسҾ鹷ع зӤѭͧǴ Ҿդ
ԹҹзáԨçҹҹ§ѵӢͧҹʺ ҧ͹

͡ҧԧ

ѹ ǧʴ 2523. ˹͹ᴧ. áû 33 (2) : 215 - 218 ѵ շ 13 Ѻ 155 Ш͹áҤ 2545.
稡Ԩ. 2532. üԵ˹͹ᴧ㹺ͫ. ɵáéѺ 8 ҹԵøҵ Ԩѵ ʶҺѹӨ״觪ҵ 12 ˹.

- "Ҵ͡§" - â觻§仵Ҵҧ - §ҷ㹵
- ·ͧФǺäѵ - ǹԴš µҴ§ - ͤѹ繾ɡѺҵ
- èѴÿ§ҧ١آѡɳ - §ҷ§ ҡҧԴ - ҹշͧ?
- ءԡҢ¾ѹͧ - ҧͧ͡͡§ - ѡɳзբͧҷͧԧԴ
- ȷҧ§§͹Ҥ  - ҾǴѴúǹ()... - ӤѡѺ...Ҿ䴫
- ҹ˹ § . -˵آͧԴ㹵 - ҹͧ§㹺ҹ
- кͧẺѤ - ҷͧ §ҧ - 硫ᴧ ѡԴ
- Ѻ§Ҥ ҡѡ§дѺ¹¡ - ѡäѴ͡١ 鹿 - §شš
- ҡѴյ - Ңͧѡ§ - һѡҷͧ
- ҷšѺ§㹵¹ - §ա...͹ҤѵɰԨ - ͺࢵþԡѹ...ͧ¾ѹ硫ᴧ
- ¹繵 ҧ䫹ҧ - ͧ§ Ҵ ѹա
- ͵ "駵" ʹ¢ͧҹѡ
- èѴҧ§ - 11ѡһһ - ҧԤѹ§!!!
- ҵ¹˹ᴧ - §Ѻ÷ͧ - кͧѺ§
- ÷Թ - кǹ÷ҧշӤѭͤسҾ§§ - ""Դǧû§
- ͧ - ෤Ԥ§ҹ͹ - ѭШӵ
- ԴѺ§ҧ٧ ô A - Ѵءͧ ҧ?
- Ѻҡ§ҵоѴҧԴ
- ÷Ѵҹ§͡͡ - 䤵Թ-⵫ҹ ûҤ쾨ҡҵ - ...§ҧȡѧͧ٧
- ٵû§ - ͧǡѺ§ - ѡèѴ